An Electronic Update to the
Calderini ed. Italy - 1995 and to the

Traditionally the systematic of the cyclopoid copepods, especially at generic level, has established on the structure and armature of the fifth leg (Kiefer 1927; Rylov 1948; Yeatman 1959; Dussart 1969; Monchenko 1974); particularly the structure of this leg is considered as the base character for the present systematic arrangement of the family Cyclopidae. However, some authors (Lindberg 1954; Kiefer 1978; Morton 1985; Petkovski 1986) and recently Reid (1993) suggested that this appendage should be considered a somewhat conservative morphological character among the cyclopid copepods, as well as it could have a poor taxonomic value as generic discriminant: the fact is that this feature by itself greatly confuses the issue of definition of some genera which remain still vague and controversial (Reid 1994; Fiers et al. 1996).

Cyclopoid morphology variations

Moreover, the inadequacy of existing descriptions of numerous species and genera, as well as the recent discovery of several taxa combining morphological characteristics of different genera, such as Diacyclops Kiefer, 1927, Acanthocyclops Kiefer, 1927, Megacyclops Kiefer, 1927, Allocyclops Kiefer, 1932, Mesocyclops G. O. Sars, 1914 and Thermocyclops Kiefer, 1937, further complicate the taxonomic understanding of this group of microcrustaceans (Mazepova 1978; Monchenko 1985; Petkovski 1986; Boxshall et al. 1993; Reid 1993; Fiers et al. 1996).
The present confusion among the Cyclopoid copepods is also largely due to the fact that certain fundamental micro-characters, such as the ornamentation of the antenna and antennula, and the armature of basis, coxa and couplers of the swimming legs, once considered unimportant, are often neglected in the specific descriptions and illustrations.

The Cyclopoids are the most abundant and successful group of copepods in continental fresh waters, such as running waters, lakes, ponds, temporary pools, as well as ground (hyporheic, phreatic, cave) waters. Many of them are marine and parasitic, as well.

The order Cyclopoida includes 22 families: Archinotodelphyidae Lang, 1948; Ascidicolidae Thorell, 1859; Cucumaricolidae Bouligand & Delamare-Deboutteville, 1959; Cylopettidae Martinez Arbizu (in press); Cyclopicinidae Martinez Arbizu (in press); Cyclopidae Rafinesque, 1815; , Cyclopinidae Sars, 1913; Fratiidae Ho, Conradi & Lopez-Gonzalez, 1998; Giselinidae Martinez Arbizu (in press); Hemicyclopinidae Martinez Arbizu (in press); Lernaeidae Cobbold, 1879; Mantridae Leigh-Sharpe, 1934; Notodelphyidae Dana, 1853; Oithonidae Dana, 1853; Ozmanidae Ho & Thatcher, 1989; Psammocyclopinidae Martinez Arbizu (in press); Pterinopsyllidae Kiefer, 1927; Schminkepinellidae Martinez Arbizu (in press); Smirnovipinidae Martinez Arbizu (in press); Speleoithonidae Rocha & Iliffe, 1991; Thaumatopsyllidae Sars, 1913; Thespesiopsylldae Wilson, 1924. The order presently includes about 1200 named species and subspecies, more than half belonging to the successful, widespread family Cyclopidae.

The following families are presently known for Italy: Cyclopidae Rafinesque, 1815; Oithonidae Sars, 1913; Lernaeidae Cobbold, 1879; Ascidicolidae Thorell, 1859; Notodelphyidae Dana, 1853; Cyclopinidae Sars, 1913 (NEW ENTRY); Smirnovipinidae Martinez Arbizu (in press) (NEW ENTRY); Schminkepinellidae Martinez Arbizu (in press) (NEW ENTRY)

Family Cyclopidae Rafinesque, 1815

Genus Acanthocyclops Kiefer 1927

Acanthocyclops agamus Kiefer 1938 S E M [VUD2]
Acanthocyclops gordani Petkovski 1971 N
Acanthocyclops hispanicus Kiefer 1937 N
Acanthocyclops kieferi (Chappuis 1925) S
Acanthocyclops orientalis Borutzki 1966 S
Acanthocyclops robustus (G.O. Sars 1863) N S Si Sa
Acanthocyclops sambugarae Kiefer 1981 (= A. hispanicus ?) N E
Acanthocyclops troglophilus Kiefer 1981 N
Acanthocyclops venustus venustus (Norman & Scott 1906) S Sa
Acanthocyclops venustus italicus Pesce & Maggi 1979 S E M [CRA2]
Acanthocyclops venustus stammeri (Kiefer 1930) N
Acanthocyclops vernalis (Fischer 1853) N S Sa

Genus Cryptocyclops G. O. Sars 1927

Cryptocyclops bicolor (G.O. Sars 1863) N S

Genus Cyclops O.F. Muller 1776

Cyclops abyssorum abyssorum G. O. Sars 1863 S Si
Cyclops abyssorum apenninae Lindberg 1957 S
Cyclops abyssorum divergens (Lindberg 1936) Si
Cyclops abyssorum divulsus (lindberg 1936) S
Cyclops abyssorum laevis (Losito 1902) S
Cyclops abyssorum larianus (Stella 1934) N (2)
Cyclops abyssorum maiorus Lindberg 1957 N (2)
Cyclops abyssorum novarensis Einsle 1968 N
Cyclops abyssorum paternonis (Lindberg 1956) S Sa
Cyclops abyssorum prealpinus Kiefer 1938 N S
Cyclops abyssorum tatricus (Kozminski 1927) N
Cyclops abyssorum tovelanus (Baldi 1941) N (3)
Cyclops abyssorum vranae Kozminski, 1927 N (NEW ENTRY)
Cyclops aurantius Fischer 1860 Si (1)
Cyclops bohater Kozmisnski 1933 N (4)
Cyclops furcifer(Claus 1857) S Si Sa
Cyclops insignis Claus 1857 N
Cyclops kolensis Lilljeborg 1901 Sa
Cyclops strenuus Fischer 1851 N S Si
Cyclops vicinus Ulianine 1875 N

(1) questionable species according to Mastrantuono & Mancinelli (1996)
(2) synonyms of Cyclops abyssorum prealpinus Kiefer 1938 (Mastrantuono & Mancinelli, 1996)
(3) synonym of Cyclops abyssorum tatricus (Kozminski 1927) (Mastrantuono & Mancinelli, 1996)
(4) the presence of this species in Italy is questionable

Genus Diacyclops Kiefer 1927

Diacyclops antrincola Kiefer 1967 N S
Diacyclops belgicus (Kiefer 1936) N S
Diacyclops bicuspidatus bicuspidatus (Claus 1857) N S Si Sa
Diacyclops bicuspidatus lubbocki (Brady 1869) N S Si Sa
Diacyclops bicuspidatus lucanus Pesce & Galassi 1985 S E
Diacyclops bisetosus (Rehberg 1880) N S Si Sa
Diacyclops charon Kiefer 1931 N
Diacyclops clandestinus (Kiefer 1926) N S Sa Si
Diacyclops crassicaudis crassicaudis (G.O. Sars 1863) S
Diacyclops crassicaudis cosana Stella & Salvadori 1954 S E M [EW]
Diacyclops crassicaudis lagrecai Pesce & Galassi 1987 Si E M [ENA2]
Diacyclops crassicaudis trinacriae Pesce & Galassi 1987 Si E
Diacyclops cristinae Pesce & Galassi 1987 S E
Diacyclops hypnicola (Gurney 1927) S
Diacyclops (=Acanthocyclops?) hypogeus Kiefer 1930 N
Diacyclops ichnusae Pesce & Galassi 1985 Sa E M [VUD2]
Diacyclops italianus (Kiefer, 1931) N * (NEW ENTRY)
Diacyclops languidoides languidoides (Lilljeborg 1901) N
Diacyclops languidoides aprutinus Pesce Pesce & Fabrizi 1979 S E
Diacyclops languidoides italianus (Kiefer 1931) N
Diacyclops languidoides nagysalloensis Kiefer 1927 S
Diacyclops languidus (G.O. Sars 1863) N S
Diacyclops lindae Pesce 1986 S E
Diacyclops maggii Pesce & Galassi 1987 S E
Diacyclops nanus (G.O.Sars 1863) N
Diacyclops nuragicus Pesce & Galassi 1985 Sa E
Diacyclops paolae Pesce & Galassi 1987 N Sa E M [VUD2]
Diacyclops paralanguidoides Pesce & Galassi 1987 N S E
Diacyclops ruffoi Kiefer 1981 (N E
Diacyclops sardous Pesce & Galassi 1987 Sa E M [CRA2]
Diacyclops tantalus (Kiefer 1937) N
Diacyclops zschokkei (Graeter 1910) N S Sa

* questionable taxon


Genus Ectocyclops Brady 1904

Ectocyclops phaleratus (Koch 1838) N S

Genus Eucyclops Claus 1893

Eucyclops denticulatus (Graeter 19039 N
Eucyclops graeteri (Chappuis 1927) N S Sa ***
Eucyclops ibleicus Pesce & Galassi 1987 Si E M [ENA2]
Eucyclops longispinosus Pesce & Galassi 1987 Si E
Eucyclops macruroides (Lilljeborg 1901) N S Si
Eucyclops macrurus macrurus (G.O. Sars 1863) N S
Eucyclops macrurus damianae (Petkovski 1971) S
Eucyclops macrurus intermedius (Damian 1955) S
Eucyclops serrulatus serrulatus (Fischer 1851) N S Si Sa
Eucyclops serrulatus tovelanus Baldi 1941 N *
Eucyclops speratus (Lilljeborg 1901) S **
Eucyclops sp. aff. puteincola Kiefer, 1981 N (NEW ENTRY)

* synonym of Eucyclops serrulatus s.str. (Mastrantuono & Mancinelli, 1996)

** According to Mastrantuono & Mancinelli (1996) the record of this species is questionable, and their italian populations should be synonymized with the following species: Eucyclops macruroides, Eucyclops serrulatus and Eucyclops macrurus

*** The records of this species as Eucyclops subterraneus from central and southern Apennines are referable to different taxa (Stoch, 1993, 2000)

Genus Euryte Philippi, 1843

Euryte longicauda Philippi, 1843 3 (NEW ENTRY)
Euryte longiseta Grandori, 1925 4 * (NEW ENTRY)

* questionable species

Genus Graeteriella Brehm 1926

Graeteriella unisetigera (Graeter 1908) N S

Genus Halicyclops Norman, 1903

Halicyclops dalmatinus Petkovski 1955 S Si
Halicyclops rotundipes rotundipes Kiefer 1935 S Si
Halicyclops rotundipes putealis Lindberg 1949 S
Halicyclops troglodytes Kiefer 1954 S Sa


Genus Macrocyclops Claus 1893

Macrocyclops albidus (Jurine 1820) N S Si Sa
Macrocyclops distinctus (Richard 1887) N? S
Macrocyclops fuscus (Jurine 1820) N S Sa

Genus Megacyclops Kiefer 1927

Megacyclops brachypus Kiefer 1954 Sa M [VUD2]
Megacyclops gigas (Claus 1856) S Sa
Megacyclops latipes (Lowndes 1927) S Sa
Megacyclops viridis (Jurine 1820) N S Sa Si

Genus Mesocyclops G.O. Sars 1914

Mesocyclops leuckarti (Claus 1857) N S Sa

Genus Metacyclops Kiefer 1927

Metacyclops gasparoi Stoch 1987 N E M [VUD2?]
Metacyclops gracilis (Lilljeborg 1857) S Sa
Metacyclops minutus (Claus 1863) S Sa
Metacyclops planus (Gurney 1909) Si
Metacyclops stammeri Kiefer 1938 S Sa Si M [LR]
Metacyclops subdolus Kiefer 1938 S Sa Si
Metacyclops trisetosus Herbst 1957 N


Genus Microcyclops Claus 1893

Microcyclops sanfilippoi Brian 1951 N S? M [EW?]
Microcyclops rubellus (Lilljeborg 1901) Sa
Microcyclops varicans (G.O. Sars 1863) N S Si

Genus Neocyclops Gurney 1927

Neocyclops (Protoneocyclops) mediterraneus (Kiefer, 1960) S


Genus Paracyclops Claus 1893

Paracyclops affinis (G.O.Sars 1863) N
Paracyclops chiltoni (Thomson 1882) N
Paracyclops fimbriatus (Fischer 1853) N S Si Sa

Genus Speocyclops Kiefer 1937

1. Speocyclops franciscoloi (Brian 1951) N E M [VUD2]
2. Speocylops demetiensis (Scourfield 1932) N
3. Speocyclops infernus (Kiefer 1930) N E
4. Speocyclops sp. (in. Pesce, 1985) Sa
5. Speocyclops sardous Lindberg 1956 Sa E M [VUD2]
6. Speocyclops italicus Kiefer 1938 S E
7. Speocyclops sp. (in: Pesce, 1985) N
2. Speocyclops cf. demetiensis (in: Pesce, 1985) N

Genus Thermocyclops Kiefer 1937

Thermocyclops crassus (Fischer 1853) N S *
Thermocyclops dybowskii (Landè 1890) N S Si Sa
Thermocyclops oblongatus (G.O.Sars 1927) S Si
Thermocyclops oithonides (G.O. Sars 1863) S?

* syn. Thermocyclops hyalinus (Kiefer, 1929)


Genus Tropocyclops Kiefer 1927

Tropocyclops prasinus (Fischer 1866) N S Si Sa

Family Misophriidae Brady, 1878

Genus Expansophria

Expansophria sarda Jaume & Boxshall 1996 Sa E

Family Mormonillidae Giesbrecht, 1892

Genus Mormonilla Giesbrecht, 1891

Mormonilla minor Giesbrecht, 1891 3, 4, 5

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