CYCLOPINAE Kiefer, 1927


The genus Thermocyclops Kiefer, 1929 includes 63 named species and subspecies, widely distributed all around the world, inhabiting surface fresh and brackish waters, rarely ocurring in ground waters (wells, anchialine caves) (Herbst, 1986; Defaye et al., 1987; Reid, 1989). Most species are known for the tropical belt: Africa south of Sahara, tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Americas and Australia, some species occur in temperate Eurasia, only a few species are cosmopolitan.

A useful taxonomical review and key were published by Herbst (1986). Reid (1989) reviewed the distribution and ecology of the genus in the western hemisphere. More recently Mirabdullayev & Kuzmetov (1997) reviewed the genus in Central Asia.

At present the discrimination of species of Themocyclops, by some authors still treated as a subgenus of Mesocyclops, is based on microcharacters, often not well defined in old species descriptions and illustrations. The present diagnoses of the genus Thermocyclops, together with the genera Diacyclops and Mesocyclops differ very little, sometime rendering assignment of the species very problematic (Reid, 1993; Fiers et al., 1996).

Recently, Baribwegure & Dumont (1999) pointed out the possibility to use integumental pores as a tool for the cyclopoid copepods identification, as well as they provided the pore signaure map in the genus Thermocyclops, using as a test case the species Thermocyclops emini.

Later on, Baribwegure et al. (2001), following the methodology of Baribwegure & Dumont (1999), "combined the integumental pore signature with the description of other morphological characters to characterize T. oblongatus, T. neglectus and T. africae".

  • Thermocyclops africae Baribwegure, Thirion & Dumont, 2001 [South Africa, dams]
  • Thermocyclops brehmi Kiefer, 1927 [South America; lakes]
  • Thermocyclops consimilis Kiefer, 1934 [Africa, Madagascar; lakes]
  • Thermocyclops conspicuus Lindberg, 1950 [India; fresh waters]
  • Thermocyclops crassus crassus (Fischer, 1853) [cosmopolitan , except Australian region; fresh waters] *** [PDF] [PDF2]
  • Thermocyclops crassus bizantinus (Kiefer, 1952) [Turkey; fresh waters]
  • Thermocyclops crassus kivuensis (Kiefer, 1952) [Zaire; lakes]
  • Thermocyclops crassus macrolasius (Kiefre, 1952) [Indonesia; fresh waters]
  • Thermocyclops crassus ndalaganus (Kiefer, 1952) [Africa; fresh waters]
  • Thermocyclops crucis Holynska, 2006 [Australia; fresh waters]
  • Thermocyclops dalmaticus (Petkovski 1956) [Yugoslavia; fresh waters]
  • Thermocyclops decipiens Kiefer, 1929 [cosmopolitan; fresh waters, marshes] [PDF] [PDF2]
  • Thermocyclops decoratus Dussart, 1977 [Africa: fresh waters] [PDF]
  • Thermocyclops dumonti Baribwegue & Mirabdulalyev, 2003 [China; temporary awaterbody] [PDF]
  • Thermocyclops dybowskii (Landé, 1890) [palaearctic, Cuba; fresh, surface and ground waters] [PDF]
  • Thermocyclops emini (Mrazek, 1895) [Africa, Madagascar; lakes]
  • Thermocyclops ethiopiensis Defaye, 1988 [Africa, Etiopie; lakes]
  • Thermocyclops hastatus antillensis Herbst 1986 [Guadeloupe, wells]
  • Thermocyclops hooki Loffler, 1968 [Africa; fresh waters]
  • Thermocyclops ianthinus Harada, 1931 [Formosa; fresh waters]
  • Thermocyclops iguapensis Silva & Matsumura-Tundisi, 2005 [Brazil: fresh water] [PDF]
  • Thermocyclops incisus Kiefer, 1932 [Africa, Madagascar,Sri Lanka; lakes]
  • Thermocyclops incisus circusi Dussart & Gras, 1966 [Tchad: lake] [PDF]
  • Thermocyclops incisus speluncus Lindberg 1953 [Madagascar; caves]
  • Thermocyclops inopinus (Kiefer, 1926) [Africa; fresh waters]
  • Thermocyclops inversus Kiefer 1936 [central America, Yucatan, Brazil; fresh waters, caves, cenotes]
  • Thermocyclops iwoyensis iwoyensis Onabamiro, 1952 [Africa; fresh waters]
  • Thermocyclops iwoyensis tchadensis (Dussart & Gras, 1966) [Africa; fresh waters] [PDF] [PDF]
  • Thermocyclops kawamurai Kikuchi, 1940 [Malesia, Sri Lanka, Chine; fresh waters] [PDF] [PDF2] ****
  • Thermocyclops macracanthus Kiefer, 1929 [Africa, lakes]
  • Thermocyclops maheensis Lindberg, 1941 [India; fresh waters] [PDF]
  • Thermocyclops microspinulosus Lindberg, 1942 [Iran, fresh waters]
  • Thermocyclops minutus (Lowndes, 1934) [south America, fresh waters, lentic and lotic waters bodies, lakes] [PDF]
  • Thermocyclops mongolicus Kiefer, 1937 [Mongolie; fresh waters] **
  • Thermocyclops neglectus neglectus (G.O. Sars, 1909) [Afria, Madagascar, lakes] [PDF]
  • Thermocyclops neglectus prolatus Kiefer, 1952 [Africa; lakes]
  • Thermocyclops oithonides (Sars, 1863 [palaearctic; fresh waters]
  • Thermocyclops oblongatus oblongatus(G.O.Sars 1927) [Europe, Africa; fresh surface and ground waters] [PDF]
  • Thermocyclops oblongatus nigerianus Kiefer, 1932 [Africa; fresh watres]
  • Thermocyclops oblongatus eduardensis Kiefer, 1952 [Africa; fresh waters]
  • Thermocyclops operculifer Kiefer, 1930 [Borneo; fresh waters]
  • Thermocyclops operculifer aberrans Lindberg, 1952 [Cambogia; fresh waters]
  • Thermocyclops orghidani Plesa 1981 [Cuba; caves] *
  • Thermocyclops orientalis Dussart & Fernando, 1985 [Sri Lanka; lakes] [PDF] ****
  • Thermocyclops ouadanei Van de velde, 1978 [Africa; fresh waters] [PDF]
  • Thermocyclops pachysetosus Lindberg, 1951 [Tanganyica; lakes]
  • Thermocyclops parvus Reid, 1989 [Florida, USA; rivers] [PDF]
  • Thermocyclops philippinensis (Marsh, 1932) [Philippines; fresh waters]
  • Thermocyclops pseudoperculifer Holynska, 2006 [Australia; fresh waters]
  • Thermocyclops rectus (Lindberg, 1937) [India; fresh waters]
  • Thermocyclops retroversus Kiefer, 1929 [Africa; lakes]
  • Thermocyclops rylovi (Smirnov, 1928) [Asia; fresh waters] [PDF]
  • Thermocyclops schmeili (Poppe & Mrazek, 1895) [Africa; fresh waters]
  • Thermocyclops schmeili crenulatus Brehm, 1948 [Madagascar; fresh waters]
  • Thermocyclops schmeili hastatus Kiefer, 1952 [Africa; lakes]
  • Thermocyclops schmeili marmagoensis Sewell, 1960 [India; fresh waters]
  • Thermocyclops taihokuensis Harada, 1931 [Asia; Philippines; fresh waters] (syn. T. asiaticus Kiefer, 1932) [PDF]
  • Thermocyclops tenuis tenuis (Marsh, 1910) [north, south America, Mexico; fresh waters, wetlands, cenotes]
  • Thermocyclops tenuis longifurcatus Pesce 1985 [west Indies, wells] [PDF]
  • Thermocyclops tinctus Lindberg, 1936 [Iran, India; fresh waters] [PDF]
  • Thermocyclops trichophorus Kiefer, 1930 [Java, fresh waters]
  • Thermocyclops uenoi Ito 1952 [Japan; wells] (left) [PDF] [PDF2]
  • Thermocyclops vermifer vermifer (Lindberg, 1935) [Asia; fresh waters] (syn. T. crassus kairakkumensis Ulomsky, 1963) [PDF]
  • Thermocyclops vermifer persicus (Lindberg, 1936) Mirabdullayev & Fiers, 2001[Iran; fresh waters] [PDF]

  • Thermocyclops vizarae Fryer, 1957 [Malawi; fresh waters]
  • Thermocyclops wolterecki kiefer, 1939 [Philippines; fresh waters] [PDF]

    * This species, incompletely described by Plesa (1981), may refer to a species of Mesocyclops (Herbst, 1986; Reid, 1989)

    ** could be synonym of Thermocyclops vermifer (Mirabdullayev & Kuzmetov, 1998)

    *** syn. Thermocyclops hyalinus (Kiefer, 1929) [PDF]

    **** Defaye et al. (1987) suggested the synonymy of T. orientalis with T. kawamurai; later on Mirabdullayev (2006) pointed out that T. orientalis and T. kawamurai are separate species.


  • Thermocyclops potamius Burchkardt, 1913 [China; fresh waters]
  • Thermocyclops schuurmanae Kiefer. 1928 (= T. infrequens Kiefer, 1929) [PDF]


    Baribwegure D., D. Defaye & I. Mirabdullayev. 2000. Redescription and new rank of Thermocyclops tchadensis Duassart et Gras, 1066 (Copepoda: Cyclopoida). Ann. Zool., Warszawa, 50 (4): 627-631.

    Baribwegure D. & H.J. Dumont. 1999. The use of the integumental pore signature in the characterization of species of the genus Thermocyclops Kiefer, 1927: the case of Thermocyclops emini (Mrazek, 1895) (Crustacea: Copepoda: Cyclopoida). Belgian J. zool., 129: 187-200.

    Baribwegure D., C. Thirion & H. J. Dumont. 2001. The integumental pore signature of Thermocyclops oblongatus (Sars, 1927) and Thermocyclops neglectus (Sars, 1909), with the description of Thermocyclops africae new species, and a comparison with Thermocyclops emini (Mrazek, 1895). Hydrobiologia, 458: 201-220.

    Chaicharoen R. , Sanoamuang L., and Hoyñska M.. 2011. A Review of the Genus Thermocyclops (Crustacea: Copepoda: Cyclopoida) in Cambodia. Zoological Studies 50(6): 780-803

    Defaye, D., B.H. Dussart, C.H. Fernando & A.S. Sarnita. 1987. On some species of the genus Thermocyclops (Crustacea, Copepoda) from the Oriental Region. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 65 (12):3144-3153.

    Herbst H.V. 1986. Beschreibung des Thermocyclops hastatus antillensis n. ssp. mit einem Bestimmungschlussel fur die Gattung Thermocyclops Kiefer, 1927. Bijdr. Dierk-, 56: 165-180.

    Mirabdullayev I.M. & A.R. Kuzmetov. 1998. The genus Thermocyclops (Crustacea: Copepoda) in Uzbekistan (Central Asia). Int. Revueges. Hydrobiol., 82 (2): 201-212.

    Mirabdullayev I.M. & F. Fiers. 2001. Redescription of two Iranian cyclopoids: Thermocyclops tinctus Lindberg, 1936 and Th. hyalinus persicus Lindberg, 1936 (Copepoda, Cyclopidae). Bull. Inst. Roy. Sc. nat. Belgique, Biologie, 71: 83-92.

    Reid J.W. 1989. The distribution of species of the genus Thermocyclops (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) in the western emisphere, with description of T. parvus, new species. Hydrobiologia, 175: 149-174.


    A Review of the Genus Thermocyclops (Crustacea: Copepoda: Cyclopoida) in Cambodia Chaicharon et al. (2011) [PDF]



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