Traditionally the systematic of the cyclopoid copepods, especially at generic level, has established on the structure and armature of the fifth leg (Kiefer 1927; Rylov 1948; Yeatman 1959; Dussart 1969; Monchenko 1974); particularly the structure of this leg is considered as the base character for the present systematic arrangement of the family Cyclopidae.

However, some authors (Lindberg 1954; Kiefer 1978; Morton 1985; Petkovski 1986) and recently Reid (1993) suggested that this appendage should be considered a somewhat conservative morphological character among the cyclopid copepods, as well as it could have a poor taxonomic value as generic discriminant. The fact is that this feature by itself greatly confuses the issue of definition of some genera which remain still vague and controversial (Reid 1994; Fiers et al. 1996).

Moreover, the inadequacy of existing descriptions of numerous species and genera, as well as the recent discovery of several taxa combining morphological characteristics of different genera, such as Diacyclops Kiefer, 1927, Acanthocyclops Kiefer, 1927, Megacyclops Kiefer, 1927, Allocyclops Kiefer, 1932, Mesocyclops G. O. Sars, 1914 and Thermocyclops Kiefer, 1937, further complicate the taxonomic understanding of this group of microcrustaceans (Mazepova 1978; Monchenko 1985; Petkovski 1986; Boxshall et al. 1993; Reid 1993; Fiers et al. 1996).

The present confusion among the Cyclopoid copepods is also largely due to the fact that certain fundamental micro-characters, such as the ornamentation of the antenna and antennule, and the armature of basis, coxa and couplers of the swimming legs, once considered unimportant, are often neglected in the specific descriptions and illustrations.

The Cyclopoids are the most abundant and successful group of copepods in continental fresh waters, such as running waters, lakes, ponds, temporary pools, as well as ground (hyporheic, phreatic, inland and anchialine cave) waters. Many of them are marine and parasitic, as well.

"Marine Cyclopoida have colonised a great variety of habitats. Most primitive members of the order such as Cyclopicina Lindberg, 1953 or Smirnovipina Martinez Arbizu, 1997, inhabit the hyperbenthic water layers (Martinez Arbizu 1997), and others like Mantra Leigh-Sharpe, 1934 or Archinotodelphys Lang, 1949 are associated with molluscs or ascidians (Leigh-Sharpe, 1934; Lang 1949). Most cyclopoids however are epibenthic, i. e. live in close contact to the bottom" (Martinez-Arbizu, 2001).

Apart from the reduction of the visual apparatus, body depigmentation, reduction of clutch size and absence of the vestigial exopodal seta in the antenna (mostly in the genus Diacyclops), subterranean cyclopoids exibit only weak troglomorphic features.



CYCLOPOIDA Rafinesque, 1815

FAMILIES


According to Boxshall & Halsey (2004 modif.), the order Cyclopoida includes the following families: Archinotodelphyidae Lang, 1949; Anchimolgidae Humes & Boxshall, 1996; Anomaloclausiidae Gotto, 1964; Antheacheridae M. Sars, 1870; Anthessidae Humes, 1986; Ascidicolidae Thorell, 1859; Bomolochidae Sumpf, 1871; Botryllophillidae Sars, 1912; Bradophilidae Marchenkov, 2002; Buproridae Thorell, 1859; Catiniidae Bocquet & Stock, 1957; Chitonophilidae Avdeev & Sirenko, 1991; Chondracathdae Milne Edwards, 1840; Chordeumiidae Boxshall, 1988; Clausidiidae Embleton, 1901; Clausiidae Giesbrecht, 1895; Corallovexiidae Stock, 1975; Corycaeidae Dana, 1852; Cucumaricolidae Bouligand & Delamare-Deboutteville, 1959; Cylopettidae Martinez Arbizu, 2000; Cyclopicinidae Martinez Arbizu (in press); Cyclopidae Dana, 1846; Cyclopinidae Sars, 1913; Doropygidae Brady, 1878; Echiurophillidae Delamare Deboutteville & Nunes-Ruivo, 1955; Enterocolidae Sars, 1921; Enterognathidae Illg & Dudley, 1980; Enteropsidae Aurivillius, 1885; Entobiidae Ho, 1984; Erebonasteridae Humes, 1987 [PDF] ; Ergasilidae von Nordmann, 1832; Eunicicolidae Sars, 1918; Fratiidae Ho, Conradi & Lopez-Gonzalez, 1998; Gastrodelphidae List, 1889; Herpyllobiidae Hansen, 1892; Giselinidae Martinez Arbizu, 2000; Hemicyclopinidae Martinez Arbizu (in press); Intramolgidae Marchenkov & Boxshall, 1995; Kelleriidae Humes & Boxshall, 1996 [PDF] ; Lamippidae Joliet, 1882; Lernaeidae Cobbold, 1879; Lernaeosoleidae Yamaguti, 1963; Lichomolgidae Kossmann, 1877; Lubbockiidae Huys & Bottger Schnack, 1997; Macrochironidae Humes & Boxshall, 1996; Mantridae Leigh-Sharpe, 1934; Mesoglicolidae de Zulueta, 1911; Micrallectidae Huys, 2001; Myicolidae Yamaguti, 1936; Mytilicolidae Bocquet & Stock, 1957; Nerecolidae Claus, 1875; Notodelphyidae Dana, 1853; Octopicolidae Humes & Boxshall, 1996; Oithonidae Dana, 1853; Oncaeidae Giesbrecht, 1892; Ozmanidae Ho & Thatcher, 1989; Paralubbockiidae Boxshall & Huys, 1988-1989; Philichthyidae Vogt, 1877; Philoblennidae Izawa, 1976; Phyllodicolidae Delamare Deboutteville & Laubier, 1961; Pionodesmotidae Bonnier, 1898; Polyankyliidae Ho & Kim, 1997; Pseudanthessiidae Humes & Stock, 1972; Psammocyclopinidae Martinez Arbizu (in press); Rhynchomolgidae Humes & Stock, 1972; Sabelliphilidae Gurney, 1927; Saccopsidae Lutzen, 1964; Sapphrinidae Thorell, 1860; Serpulidocolidae Stock, 1979; Shiinoidae Cressey, 1975; Schizoproctidae Aurivillius, 1885 (?); Schminkepinellidae Martinez Arbizu (in press); Smirnovipinidae Martinez Arbizu (in press); Speleoithonidae Rocha & Iliffe, 1991; Spiophanicolidae Ho, 1984; Splanchnotrophidae Norman & T. Scott, 1906; Synapticolidae Humes & Boxshall, 1996; Synaptiphilidae Bocquet, 1953; Taeniacanthidae C. B. Wilson, 1911; Tegobomolochidae G. V. Avdeev, 1978; Telsidae Ho, 1967; Thamnomolgidae Humes & Boxshall, 1996; Thaumatopsyllidae Sars, 1913; Thespesiopsylldae Wilson, 1924 (?); Tuccidae Vervoort, 1962; Urocopiidae Humes & Stock, 1972; Vahiniidae Humes, 1967; Ventriculinidae Leigh-Sharpe, 1934; Xarifiidae Humes, 1960; Xenocoelomatidae Bresciani & Lutzen, 1966.

The family Phyllodicolidae Delamare-Deboutteville & Laubier, 1961, formerly in the order Poecilostomatoida (Huys & Boxshall, 1991), has been moved to the order Cyclopoida (Damkaer, 1996).

Recently Dussart & Defaye (2006) moved the order Poecilostomatoida to the order Cyclopoida, reducing the orders of Copepoda to nine.

The order presently includes more than 1500 named species and subspecies, about the half belonging to the successful, widespread family Cyclopidae.




CYCLOPIDAE Rafinesque, 1815


Members of the family Cyclopidae are characterized by the antennula composed of 6-21 segments (female) and less than 18 segments (male), antenna 4-segmented (rarely 3-segmented), with or without exopodal vestigial seta and with somewhat reduced armature on the basipodite, mandibular palp reduced, consisting of 1-3 setae implanted on a rudimentary protuberance, or quite lacking in some species, maxillula with endopodite and exopodite fused, maxilliped with reduced endopodite.

Presently, the family Cyclopidae comprises four subfamilies, viz. Halicyclopinae, Euryteinae, Eucyclopinae and Cyclopinae (Karaytug, 1999), 70 genera and more than 1200 species and subspecies (Dussart & Defaye, 2006; Holynska & Stoch, 2011; Walter, T.C. & Boxshall, G., 2013), the great majority belonging to the two freshwater subfamilies Eucyclopinae and Cyclopinae.

The Euryteinae contains only marine and estuarine species, the Halicyclopinae predominantly consist of brackish water species, most of them belonging to the genus Halicyclops.


  • Euryteinae Monchenko 1974

  • Halicyclopinae Kiefer 1927

  • Eucyclopinae Kiefer 1927

  • Cyclopinae Rafinesque, 1815



    LIST OF CYCLOPID GENERA FROM : WORLD REGISTER OF MARINE SPECIES





    ABRSIIDAE (IN PRESS)

    ARCHINOTODELPHYIDAE Lang, 1949 [working on it]

    ASCIDICOLIDAE Thorell, 1859 [working on it]

    CHORDEUMIIDAE Boxshall, 1988 [working on it]

    CLAUSIDIIDAE Embleton, 1901

    CORYCAEIDAE Dana, 1852

    CUCUMARICOLIDAE Bouligand & Delamare-Deboutteville, 1959 [working on it]

    CYCLOPETTIDAE Martinez Arbizu, 2000

    CYCLOPICINIDAE Martinez Arbizu (in press)

    CYCLOPINIDAE s. str. G. O. Sars, 1913

    EREBONASTERIDAE Humes, 1987

    GISELINIDAE Martinez Arbizu, 2000

    HEMICYCLOPINIDAE Martinez Arbizu, 2001

    LERNAEIDAE Cobbold, 1879 [working on it]

    MANTRIDAE Leigh-Sharpe, 1934 [working on it]

    NOTODELPHYIDAE Dana, 1853 [working on it]

    OITHONIDAE G.O. Dana, 1853 [PDF] [working on it]

    LIMNOITHONIDAE Kiefer, 1928 [working on it]

    OZMANIDAE Ho & Thatcher, 1989 [working on it]

    POLYANKYLIIDAE Ho & Him, 19907

    PSAMMOCYCLOPINIDAE Martinez Arbizu, 2001

    PTERINOPSYLLIDAE Kiefer, 1927

    SCHMINKEPINELLIDAE Martinez Arbizu, 2006

    SMIRNOVIPINIDAE Martinez Arbizu (in press)

    SPELEOITHONIDAE Rocha & Iliffe, 1991

    THAUMATOPSYLLIDAE Sars, 1913 [working on it]

    THESPESIOPSYLLIDAE Wilson, 1924 [working on it]







    | NEW TAXA DESCRIBED IN 2007 |

    | NEW TAXA DESCRIBED IN 2006 |

    | NEW TAXA DESCRIBED IN 2005 |

    | NEW TAXA DESCRIBED IN 2004 |

    From: World of Copepods - Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History


    LINKS


    REVIEW OF ANTENNULAR SETATION PATTERNS IN CYCLOPIDAE [PDF]


    WORLD DIRECTORY OF CRUSTACEA COPEPODA OF INLAND WATERS
    II. CYCLOPIFORMES by Dussart & Defaye, 2006


    NOMENCLATOR ZOOLOGICUS ONLINE INFORMATION
    Zoological Society of London


    RELEVANT REFERENCES

    | LIST OF FAMILIES FROM WORLD OF COPEPODS at "www.marinespecies.org" |

    CYCLOPIDS FROM SUDAN











    | LATEST REVISION JANUARY 26. 2017 |


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