(syn. THAUMATOPSYLLOIDA; CYCLOPIDEA)


Traditionally the systematic of the cyclopoid copepods, especially at generic level, has established on the structure and armature of the fifth leg (Kiefer 1927; Rylov 1948; Yeatman 1959; Dussart 1969; Monchenko 1974); particularly the structure of this leg is considered as the base character for the present systematic arrangement of the family Cyclopidae.

However, some authors (Lindberg 1954; Kiefer 1978; Morton 1985; Petkovski 1986) and recently Reid (1993) suggested that this appendage should be considered a somewhat conservative morphological character among the cyclopid copepods, as well as it could have a poor taxonomic value as generic discriminant. The fact is that this feature by itself greatly confuses the issue of definition of some genera which remain still vague and controversial (Reid 1994; Fiers et al. 1996).

Moreover, the inadequacy of existing descriptions of numerous species and genera, as well as the recent discovery of several taxa combining morphological characteristics of different genera, such as Diacyclops Kiefer, 1927, Acanthocyclops Kiefer, 1927, Megacyclops Kiefer, 1927, Allocyclops Kiefer, 1932, Mesocyclops G. O. Sars, 1914 and Thermocyclops Kiefer, 1937, further complicate the taxonomic understanding of this group of microcrustaceans (Mazepova 1978; Monchenko 1985; Petkovski 1986; Boxshall et al. 1993; Reid 1993; Fiers et al. 1996).

The present confusion among the Cyclopoid copepods is also largely due to the fact that certain fundamental micro-characters, such as the ornamentation of the antenna and antennule, and the armature of basis, coxa and couplers of the swimming legs, once considered unimportant, are often neglected in the specific descriptions and illustrations.

The Cyclopoids are the most abundant and successful group of copepods in continental fresh waters, such as running waters, lakes, ponds, temporary pools, as well as ground (hyporheic, phreatic, inland and anchialine cave) waters. Many of them are marine and parasitic, as well.

"Marine Cyclopoida have colonised a great variety of habitats. Most primitive members of the order such as Cyclopicina Lindberg, 1953 or Smirnovipina Martinez Arbizu, 1997, inhabit the hyperbenthic water layers (Martinez Arbizu 1997), and others like Mantra Leigh-Sharpe, 1934 or Archinotodelphys Lang, 1949 are associated with molluscs or ascidians (Leigh-Sharpe, 1934; Lang 1949). Most cyclopoids however are epibenthic, i. e. live in close contact to the bottom" (Martinez-Arbizu, 2001).

Apart from the reduction of the visual apparatus, body depigmentation, reduction of clutch size and absence of the vestigial exopodal seta in the antenna (mostly in the genus Diacyclops), subterranean cyclopoids exibit only weak troglomorphic features.

The order Cyclopoida Rafinesque, 1815 today has around 1360 valid species, classified into 204 genera and 18 families (Karanovic 2008).



CYCLOPOIDA Rafinesque, 1815

suborder CYCLOPIDA Khodami et al., 2019


FAMILIES

According to Boxshall & Halsey (2004 modif.), the order Cyclopoida includes the following families: Archinotodelphyidae Lang, 1949; Anchimolgidae Humes & Boxshall, 1996; Anomaloclausiidae Gotto, 1964; Antheacheridae M. Sars, 1870; Anthessidae Humes, 1986; Ascidicolidae Thorell, 1859; Bomolochidae Sumpf, 1871; Botryllophillidae Sars, 1912; Bradophilidae Marchenkov, 2002; Buproridae Thorell, 1859; Catiniidae Bocquet & Stock, 1957; Chitonophilidae Avdeev & Sirenko, 1991; Chondracathdae Milne Edwards, 1840; Chordeumiidae Boxshall, 1988; Clausidiidae Embleton, 1901; Clausiidae Giesbrecht, 1895; Corallovexiidae Stock, 1975; Corycaeidae Dana, 1852; Cucumaricolidae Bouligand & Delamare-Deboutteville, 1959; Cylopettidae Martinez Arbizu, 2000; Cyclopicinidae Martinez Arbizu (in press); Cyclopidae Dana, 1846; Cyclopinidae Sars, 1913; Doropygidae Brady, 1878; Echiurophillidae Delamare Deboutteville & Nunes-Ruivo, 1955; Enterocolidae Sars, 1921; Enterognathidae Illg & Dudley, 1980; Enteropsidae Aurivillius, 1885; Entobiidae Ho, 1984; Erebonasteridae Humes, 1987 [PDF] ; Ergasilidae von Nordmann, 1832; Eunicicolidae Sars, 1918; Fratiidae Ho, Conradi & Lopez-Gonzalez, 1998; Gastrodelphidae List, 1889; Herpyllobiidae Hansen, 1892; Giselinidae Martinez Arbizu; Lichomolgidae Gurney [PDF] ; Lubbockiidae Huys & Bottger Schnack, 1997; Macrochironidae Humes & Boxshall, 1996; Mantridae Leigh-Sharpe, 1934; Mesoglicolidae de Zulueta, 1911; Micrallectidae Huys, 2001; Myicolidae Yamaguti, 1936; Mytilicolidae Bocquet & Stock, 1957; Nerecolidae Claus, 1875; Notodebizu, 2000; Hemicyclopinidae Martinez Arbizu (in press); Intramolgidae Marchenkov & Boxshall, 1995; ; Lamippidae Joliet, 1882; Lernaeidae Cobbold, 1879; Lernaeosoleidae Yamaguti, 1963; Octopicolidae Humes & Boxshall, 1996; Oithonidae Dana, 1853; Oncaeidae Giesbrecht, 1892; Ozmanidae Ho & Thatcher, 1989; Paralubbockiidae Boxshall & Huys, 1988-1989; Philichthyidae Vogt, 1877; Philoblennidae Izawa, 1976; Phyllodicolidae Delamare Deboutteville & Laubier, 1961; Pionodesmotidae Bonnier, 1898; Polyankyliidae Ho & Kim, 1997; Pseudanthessiidae Humes & Stock, 1972; Psammocyclopinidae Martinez Arbizu (in press); Rhynchomolgidae Humes & Stock, 1972; Sabelliphilidae Gurney, 1927; Saccopsidae Lutzen, 1964; Sapphrinidae Thorell, 1860; Serpulidocolidae Stock, 1979; Shiinoidae Cressey, 1975; Schizoproctidae Aurivillius, 1885 (?); Schminkepinellidae Martinez Arbizu; Smirnovipinidae Martinez Arbizu; Speleoithonidae Rocha & Iliffe, 1991; Spiophanicolidae Ho, 1984; Splanchnotrophidae Norman & T. Scott, 1906; Synapticolidae Humes & Boxshall, 1996; Synaptiphilidae Bocquet, 1953; Taeniacanthidae C. B. Wilson, 1911; Tegobomolochidae G. V. Avdeev, 1978; Telsidae Ho, 1967; Thamnomolgidae Humes & Boxshall, 1996; Thaumatopsyllidae Sars, 1913; Thespesiopsylldae Wilson, 1924 (?); Tuccidae Vervoort, 1962; Urocopiidae Humes & Stock, 1972; Vahiniidae Humes, 1967; Ventriculinidae Leigh-Sharpe, 1934; Xarifiidae Humes, 1960; Xenocoelomatidae Bresciani & Lutzen, 1966.

The family Phyllodicolidae Delamare-Deboutteville & Laubier, 1961, formerly in the order Poecilostomatoida (Huys & Boxshall, 1991), has been moved to the order Cyclopoida (Damkaer, 1996).

Recently Dussart & Defaye (2006) moved the order Poecilostomatoida to the order Cyclopoida, reducing the orders of Copepoda to 10.


HALICYCLOPIDAE Kiefer, 1927

CYCLOPIDAE Rafinesque, 1815

EUCYCLOPINAE Kiefer, 1927


suborder OITHONIDA Khodami, Mercado-Salas, Tang & Matrinez Arbizu, 2019

THAUMATOPSYLLIDAE G. O. Sars, 1913

(syn. Thespesiopsyllidae Wilson C.B., 1924)


"The classification of the Thaumatopsyllidae within the Copepoda has been an issue of ongoing discussion since the discovery of Thaumatopsyllus paradoxus G.O. Sars, 1913 from the Norwegian coast. The family has been formally placed in the Monstrilloida, the Cyclopoida and even in its own order, the Thaumatopsylloida, based on different morphological criteria. We examined for the first time, the phylogenetic position of the Thaumatopsyllidae using gene sequences of 28S and 18S rRNA, as well as COI mtDNA, obtained from two thaumatopsyllid species occurring off the coast of southern California. We also fortuitously explored the phylogenetic relationships of the Cyclopoida in more detail than Khodami et al. (2017) by including a wider sample of key families such as the Erebonasteridae and Gisellinidae. Both Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses revealed the Thaumatopsyllidae is nested in the Cyclopoida and is related to the marine Speleoithonidae. In addition, 16 families of the Cyclopoida are supported to be monophyletic, but surprisingly, the Cyclopidae is paraphyletic. The Cyclopicinidae is the first monophyletic offshoot of the cyclopoid tree, followed by two derived clades. The first clade contains a monophylum consisting of the Schminkepinellidae?+?Giselinidae which is sister to a clade including the monophyletic Erebonasteridae and all other poecilostome families. The second clade is divided into two main, well-supported family clusters. One includes the Cyclopidae encompassing two subfamilies (Eucylopinae and Cyclopinae), but unexpectedly the parasitic Lernaeidae cluster as a sister-group to the brackish water Halicyclops (subfamily Halicyclopinae) and the Euryteinae is the sister to all the rest of Cyclopidae s. l., making the Cyclopidae paraphyletic. To resolve this conundrum, we erected two families, Euryteidae and Halicyclopidae. The Cyclopidae s. str. retains the subfamilies Eucyclopinae and Cyclopinae, although our phylogeny does not support the reciprocal monophyly of these subfamilies. Our results support the gradual invasion of fresh water by the four families in this cluster. The highly supported monophyletic marine Euryteidae is the first offshoot followed by the brackish-water, free-living Halicyclopidae and the freshwater, parasitic Lernaeidae. The Cyclopidae fulfilled the colonization of freshwater bodies. The other clade of families comprises 12 monophyletic families recovered by our analysis, including the Pterinopsyllidae (at first offshoot), the Smirnovipinidae sister to the Hemicyclopinidae?+?Psammocyclopinidae, the Thaumatopsyllidae?+?Speleoithonidae, an undescribed family sister to the Archinotodelphyidae?+?Notodelphyidae and the Cyclopinidae sister to the Oithonidae?+?Cyclopettidae. We propose suborder ranks for each of the four main phylogenetic subdivisions of the Cyclopoida. These are named Cyclopicinida, Ergasilida, Cyclopida and Oithonida after the type genus of the oldest described family in the respective group (Ho et al., 2019), Members of the family Cyclopidae are characterized by the antennula composed of 6-21 segments (female) and less than 18 segments (male), antenna 4-segmented (rarely 3-segmented), with or without exopodal vestigial seta and with somewhat reduced armature on the basipodite, mandibular palp reduced, consisting of 1-3 setae implanted on a rudimentary protuberance, or quite lacking in some species, maxillula with endopodite and exopodite fused, maxilliped with reduced endopodite.

Recently Ho et al., 2003 showed that analysis of the phylogenetic relationships of Thaumatopsyllidae shows that it is not a member of any of the other previously established orders of Copepoda. Accordingly, a new order, Thaumatopsylloida, is proposed to accommodate the five species of thaumatopsyllids thus far reported and is shown to be a member of a Thaumatopsylloida-Monstrilloida-Siphonostomatoida clade, but this opinion is not shared by most copepodologists, and will not be considered in this portal. [PDF]


TAUMATHOPSYLLUS Sars, 1913

(syn, Thespesiopsyllus Wilson C.B., 1924)

  • Thaumatopsyllus paradoxus Sars, 1913

    AUSTRALOPSYLLUM Sars, 1913 [PDF]

  • Australopsyllus fallax McKinnon, 1994 [PDF]

    CARIBEOPSYLLUS Suárez-Moraless & Castellanos, 1998 [PDF]

  • Caribeopsyllus amphiodiae Ho, Dojiri, Hendler & Deets, 2003 [PDF]
  • Caribeopsyllus chawayi Suarez-Morales, 1998 [Mexico] [PDF]

    THESPESIOPSYLLUS Wilson C.B., 1924 (syn. Thaumatopsyllus Sars G.O., 1913)

  • Thespesiopsyllus paradoxus Sars G. O. 1913,(syn.Thaumatopsyllus paradoxus Sars G.O., 1913

    ORENTOPSYLLUS Sewell, 1949

  • Orientopsyllus investigatoris Sewell, 1949


    LIST OF CYCLOPID GENERA FROM : WORLD REGISTER OF MARINE SPECIES





    ABRSIIDAE

    ANCHIMOLGIDAE Humes & Boxshall, 1996

    ARCHINOTODELPHYIDAE Lang, 1949

    ASCIDICOLIDAE Thorell, 1859

    BOTRYLLOPHILLIDAE Sars G.O., 1921

    BUPRORIDAE Thorell, 1859

    CHITONOPHILIDAE Avdeev & Sirenko, 1991

    CHORDEUMIIDAE Boxshall, 1988

    CLAUSIDIIDAE Embleton, 1901

    CLAUSIIDAE Giesbrecht, 1895

    CORYCAEIDAE Dana, 1852

    CUCUMARICOLIDAE Bouligand & Delamare-Deboutteville, 1959

    CYCLOPETTIDAE Martinez Arbizu, 2000

    CYCLOPICINIDAE Khodami, Vaun MacArthur, Blanco-Bercial & Martinez Arbizu, 2017

    CYCLOPINIDAE s. str. G. O. Sars, 1913

    ENTEROGNATHIDAE Illg & Dudley, 1980

    ENTEROPSIDAE Thorell, 1859

    EREBONASTERIDAE Humes, 1987

    EURYTEIDAE Monchenko 1974

    FRATIIDAE Ho, Conradi & López-González, 1998

    GISELINIDAE Martinez Arbizu, 2000

    HEMICYCLOPINIDAE Martinez Arbizu, 2001

    KELLERIIDAE Humes & Boxshall, 1996

    LERNAEIDAE Cobbold, 1879

    LICHOMOLGIDAE Kossmann, 1877

    MANTRIDAE Leigh-Sharpe, 1934

    MACROCHIRONIDAE Humes & Boxshall, 1996

    NOTODELPHYIDAE Dana, 1853

    OITHONIDAE G.O. Dana, 1853 [PDF]

    OZMANIDAE Ho & Thatcher, 1989

    POLYANKYLIIDAE Ho & Him, 1997

    PRAXILLINICOLIDAE Huys, 2016

    PSAMMOCYCLOPINIDAE Martinez Arbizu, 2001

    PTERINOPSYLLIDAE Kiefer, 1927

    SCHMINKEPINELLIDAE Martinez Arbizu, 2006

    SMIRNOVIPINIDAE Khodami, Vaun MacArthur, Blanco-Bercial & Martinez Arbizu, 2017

    SPELEOITHONIDAE Rocha & Iliffe, 1991

    THAUMATOPSYLLIDAE Sars G.O., 1913


    Enterocolidae Della Valle, 1883 syn.Enteropsidae Thorell, 1859; Haplostomidae Sars G.O., 1921 syn. Botryllophilidae Sars G.O., 1921





    | NEW TAXA DESCRIBED IN 2007 |

    | NEW TAXA DESCRIBED IN 2006 |

    | NEW TAXA DESCRIBED IN 2005 |

    | NEW TAXA DESCRIBED IN 2004 |

    From: World of Copepods - Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History


    LINKS


    REVIEW OF ANTENNULAR SETATION PATTERNS IN CYCLOPIDAE [PDF]


    WORLD DIRECTORY OF CRUSTACEA COPEPODA OF INLAND WATERS
    II. CYCLOPIFORMES by Dussart & Defaye, 2006


    NOMENCLATOR ZOOLOGICUS ONLINE INFORMATION
    Zoological Society of London


    RELEVANT REFERENCES

    | LIST OF FAMILIES FROM WORLD OF COPEPODS at "www.marinespecies.org" |

    CYCLOPIDS FROM SUDAN











    | LATEST REVISION MAY 01.2021 |


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