ORDER CANUELLOIDA (POLYARTHRA according by He et al.(2023)


"The harpacticoid family Canuellidae currently accommodates 17 genera (Huys, 1995). The most speciose genus, Scottolana Por, 1967, is marked by an intricate nomenclatural history.

Por (1967) proposed the genus to accommodate three species which were originally placed in Sunaristes Hesse, 1867: Sunaristes inopinata Thompson and A. Scott, 1903; S. longipes Thompson and A. Scott, 1903; and S. bulbosus Por, 1964. He also considered Canuella scotti Sewell, 1940 [=nomen novum for Canuella curticaudata (Thompson and A. Scott) sensu A. Scott (1909); but see Hamond (1973) for alternative opinion] as a probable member of Scottolana, as well as Sunaristes curticaudata Thompson and A. Scott, 1903 which he tentatively assigned to the genus. Although Canuella canadensis Willey, 1923 was not included in Por’s (1967) review of the Canuellidae, it was subsequently transferred to Scottolana on the basis of a redescription of both sexes (Coull, 1972). Similarly, Wells (1976) assigned Canuella bulbifera Chislenko, 1971 to Scottolana but did not make a specific recommendation for this placement. This course of action was adopted by Fiers (1984).

In his second outline revision of the Canuellidae, Por (1984) restricted the genus to just two species, Scottolana longipes (Thompson and A. Scott, 1903) and S. uxoris Por, 1983, and for some inexplicable reason cited it as a ‘new combination’. He continued to consider Canuella scotti as a candidate for inclusion in this genus, provisionally removed S. bulbosa back to Sunaristes, proposed a new genus Coullana for S. canadensis, and regarded the status of both S. curticaudata and S. inopinata as too problematic for further discussion. Scottolana bulbifera was not included in Por’s (1984) review and neither were S. glabra Fiers, 1982 and S. dissimilis Fiers, 1982, possibly as a result of coinciding submission of the respective manuscripts.

The genus has seen the addition of four new species since: S. antillensis Fiers, 1984; S. oleosa Wells and Rao, 1987; S. rostrata Wells and Rao, 1987 and S. tumidiseta Wells and Rao, 1987. Finally, Canuella brevifurca Wells, 1967 was cited as a member of Scottolana by Wells and Rao (1987: 11) but to our knowledge no formal recommendation has been made for this new combination. Huys (1995) removed S. curticaudatus to the new genus Intersunaristes and assigned S. inopinata to the Scottolana ‘complex’. Likewise, there is no factual justification for maintaining S. bulbosus in the genus Sunaristes and it is here transferred to Scottolana. As a result of these discussions the genus Scottolana currently comprises 13 species: S. longipes, S. inopinata, S. scotti, S. bulbosa, S. brevifurca, S. bulbifera, S. dissimilis, S. uxoris, S. glabra, S. antillensis, S. oleosa, S. rostrata and S. tumidiseta. In neither of Por’s (1967, 1984) reviews, nor subsequently by any other authors, was a type species designated.

Since definite type fixation by original designation or indication is mandatory as a requirement for availability for generic names published after 1930 [ICZN Art. 13.3], it follows that Scottolona Por, 1967 is unavailable. In order to maintain nomenclatural stability one of us (R.H.) submitted an application (Case 3218) to the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature for the conservation of the generic name Scottolana Por, 1967 and the designation of Sunaristes bulbosus Por, 1964 as type species. Sunaristes bulbosus was selected since insufficient information is available on the males of the other two species originally included in the genus, S. inopinata and S. longipes. The former has never been recorded again since its original description from washings of Sri Lankan invertebrates (Thompson and A. Scott, 1903).

Conversely, S. longipes has been the subject of redescription on three different occasions (Por, 1964; Wells, 1967; Wells and Rao, 1987), however, there is strong evidence that neither the Levantine material (Por, 1964) nor the specimens from Mozambique (Wells, 1967) are conspecific with Thompson and A. Scott’s (1903) single female from Sri Lanka (from: Fang-Hong Mu & R. Huys, 2004).

Recently Khodami et al., (2017) investigated the phylogenetic relationships between representatives of all copepod orders using 28S and 18S rRNA, Histone H3 protein and COI mtDNA. The order Canuelloida is proposed to include the families Canuellidae and Longipediidae.

The family Canuellidae could be considered the most ancestor-like group of copepods on account of the "petasmata" which are a unique feature among the copepods (Por, 1984).

Key to genera of Canuellidae

According to Por (1984), Bodin (1997) and Fang-Hong Mu & R. Huys (2004) the family includes the following genera:

BRIANOLA Monard, 1926
CANUELLA T. & A. Scott, 1893
CANUELLINA Gurney, 1927
COULLANA Por, 1984
ELANELLA Por, 1984
ELLUCANA Sewell, 1940
IFANELLA Vervoort, 1964
INTERCANUELLA Becker & Schriever, 1979
SUNARISTES Hesse, 1867

CANUELLA T. & A. Scott,1893

  • Canuella elanitica Por, 1967 [Red Sea]
  • Canuella furcigera Sars, 1903 [Euope; north Africa; brackish waters]
  • Canuella longipes (Thompson & A. Scott)(?)
  • Canuella paenelantica Fiers, 1982 [Cpast of Papua New Guinea]
  • Canuella perplexa T. & A. Scott,1893 [cosmopolitan; marine sand, brackish waters, springs, rivers, lakes]
  • Canuella persica Nazari et al., 2018 [Iran]
  • Canuella pontica Apotolov, 1971 [Bulgaria; brackish waters]
  • Canuella reichi Por (?)


  • Canuella indica Krishnaswamy, 1957
  • Canuella brevifurca Wells, 1967

    Scheme for derivation of different "petasmata" in Canuellidae (after Por,1984)

    SUNARISTES Hesse, 1867

  • Sunaristes bulbosus Por, 1964 (=Scottolana bulbosa (Por, 1964)
  • Sunaristes cheliceratum (Por & Marcus, 1972) accepted as Parasunaristes chelicerata (Por & Marcus, 1972)
  • Sunaristes curticaudata Thompson I.C. & Scott A., 1903 (=Intersunaristes curticaudatus (Thompson I.C. & Scott A., 1903)
  • Sunaristes dardani Humes & Ho, 1969 accepted as Intersunaristes dardani (Humes & Ho, 1969)
  • Sunaristes inaequalis Humes & Ho, 1969 [Western Indian Ocean]
  • Sunaristes inopinata Thompson I.C. & Scott A., 1903 accepted as Scottolana inopinata (Thompson I.C. & Scott A., 1903)
  • Sunaristes longipes Thompson I.C. & Scott A., 1903 accepted as Scottolana longipes (Thompson I.C. & Scott A., 1903)
  • Sunaristes japonicus Ho, 1986 [Japan; marine]
  • Sunaristes paguri Hesse, 1867 [Europe, New Guinea, Sri Lanka; marine, in shells occupied by harmit crabs]
  • Sunaristes tranteri Hamond, 1973 [Australia; marine]


  • Sunaristes bulbosus Por, 1964

    BRIANOLA Monard, 1926

  • Brianola curvirostris Bozic, 1968 [Reunion; marine]
  • Brianola elegans Hamond, 1973 [Australia, New Guinea; marine]
  • Brianola exigua Por, 1967 [Red Sea]
  • Brianola haliensis Nazari et al., 2018 [Iran]
  • Brianola hamondi Wells & Rao, 1987 [Andaman Islands; marine]
  • Brianola stebleri (Monard, 1926) [Europe, north Africa; marine]
  • Brianola sydneyensis Hamond, 1973 [Australia, marine]
  • Brianola vangoethemi Fiers, 1982 [New Guinea; marine]


  • Brianola pori Hamond, 1973
  • Brianola minima Por, 1969

    Key to species of Brianola Monard, 1927

    CANUELLINA Gurney, 1927

  • Canuellina canalis Por, 1969 [Sinai; marine]
  • Canuellina femur Por, 1967 [Red Sea]
  • Canuellina insignis Gurney, 1927 [Egypt; marine ?]
  • Canuellina nicobaris Wells & Rao, 1987 (transferred to Ellucalana Coull 1971)
  • Canuellina onchophora Por, 1967 [Red Sea] (transferred to Ellucalana Coull 1971)
  • Canuellina secunda (Coull, 1971) [USA; marine]
  • Canuellina tuba Por, 1983 [Red Sea]

    CANUELLOPSIS Lang, 1936

  • Canuellopsis mediterranea Soyer, 1966 [France; marine]
  • Canuellopsis rostrata Apostolov, 2011
  • Canuellopsis swedmarki Por, 1964 [Skagerak; marine]

    ELLUCANA Sewell, 1940

  • Ellucana longicauda Sewell,1940 [New Guinea; lagoons]
  • Ellucana secunda Coull,1971 [USA; marine]

    INDOCANUELLA Huys, 2016 (sym. INDICANUELLA Krishnaswamy, 1957)

  • Indocanuella indica Huys 2016 (sin. Canuella)

    LOURINIDAE Lang, 1948

    LOURINIA Wilson C.B., 1924 (syn. Ceylonia Thompson I.C. & Scott A., 1903; Ceyloniella Wilson C.B., 1924;Jurinia Claus, 1866

  • Lourinia aculeata (Thompson I.C. & Scott A., 1903)
  • Lourinia nicobarica (Sewell, 1940)
  • Lourinia armata (Nicholls, 1940)

    ARCHEOLOURINIA Gorgosinho & Schizas, 2012

  • Archeolourinia shermani Gorgosihno & Schizas, 2012 [Caribbean mesophotic zone]

    METIDAE Lang, 1948

    LAUBERIA Soyers, 1966

  • Laubieria corallicola Soyer, 1966
  • Laubieria secunda Wells, 1967
  • Laubieria tercera Fiers, 1992

    METIS Sewell, 1940

    (syn. Abacola Edwards, 1891,Carazzoides Grandori, 1912; Corazzoides Grandori, 1912 ; Ilyopsyllus Brady & Robertson, 1873; Parametis Labbé, 1927; Rubeus Carazzi & Grandori, 1912 Thoracosphaera Krichagin, 1873)

  • Metis angulata (Linnaeus, 1767) (taxon inquirendum)
  • Metis affinis (Scott T., 1894)
  • Metis coriacea (Brady & Robertson, 1873) syn. Metis ignea Philippi, 1843 ; Metis ignea ignea Philippi, 1843
  • Metis galapagoensis Mielke ,1989
  • Metis holothuriae (Candeias, 1959)
  • Metis inflata (Krichagin, 1873)
  • Metis ignea Pesta, 1959
  • Metis ignea halmyricola (Marcus & Por, 1961)
  • Metis jousseaumei (Richard, 1892)
  • Metis natans Yeatman, 1976
  • Metis pallida Gurney, 1927
  • Metis reducta Fiers. 1992
  • Metis sanguinea (Labbé, 1927)
  • Metis sarsi (Sharpe, 1910)
  • Metis veneta (Grandori, 1912)

    | PAGE UPDATED JULY 12. 2024 |

    | NEXT PAGE |

    Copyright © 1999-2024 G. L. Pesce - All Rights Reserved. Text and images on this website may not be
    redistributed or put as part of any collection (image archives, CDs etc) without prior written permission.